A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a light, strong metal with low density that, when pure, is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment), lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (over 1,649°C or 3,000°F) makes it useful as a refractory metal.

Commercial (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 63,000 psi (434 MPa), equal to that of some steel alloys, but are 45% lighter. Titanium is 60% heavier than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 200,000 psi (1380 MPa). However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430°C (800°F).

It is fairly hard (although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel), non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limit which guarantees longevity in some applications.

The metal is a dimorphic allotrope with the hexagonal alpha form changing into the body-centered cubic (lattice) beta form at 882°C (1,619°F). The specific heat of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the beta form regardless of temperature. Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but which may exist metastably at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the beta phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms.

General Specifications
ASTM B265 Plate and Sheet
ASTM B299 Sponge
ASTM B337 Pipe (Annealed, Seamless and Welded)
ASTM B338 Welded Tube
ASTM B348 Bar and Billet
ASTM B363 Fittings
ASTM B367 Castings
ASTM B381 Forgings
ASTM B862 Pipe (As welded, no anneal)
ASTM B863 Wire (Titanium and titanium alloy)
ASTM F1108 6Al-4V Castings for surgical implants
ASTM F1295 6Al-4V Niobium alloy for surgical implant applications
ASTM F1341 Unalloyed titanium wire for surgical implant applications
ASTM F136(e-1) 6Al-4V ELI alloy for surgical implant applications.
Editorial changes were made throughout March 1994
ASTM F1472 6Al-4V for Surgical implant applications
ASTM F620 6Al-4V ELI Forgings for surgical implants
ASTM F67 Unalloyed titanium for surgical implant applications

Titanium Grades
1 Unalloyed Ti 35 25 14.9
2 Unalloyed Ti 50 40 14.9
3 Unalloyed Ti 65 55 14.9
4 Unalloyed Ti 80 70 15
5 Ti-6AI-4V 130 120 16.4
6 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn 120 115 16
7 Ti-0.15Pd 50 40 14.9
9 Ti-3Al-2.5V 90 70 13.1
10 Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn 100 90 14.9
11 Ti-0.15Pd 35 25 14.9
12 Ti-0.3-Mo-0.8Ni 70 50 14.9
13 Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru 40 25 14.9
14 Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru 60 40 14.9
15 Ti-0.5Ni-0.05Ru 70 55 14.9
16 Ti-0.05Pd 50 40 14.9
17 Ti-0.05Pd 35 25 14.9
18 Ti-3Al-2.5V-0.05Pd 90 70 15.3
19 Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo 115 110 14.9
20 Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo-0.05Pd 115 110 14.9
21 Ti-15Mo-2.7Nb-3Al-0.25Si 115 110 14.9
23 Ti-6Al-4V ELI 115 110 16.3
24 Ti-6Al-4V-0.05Pd 130 120 16.4
25 Ti-6Al-4V-0.5Ni-0.05Pd 130 120 16.4
26 Ti-0.1Ru 50 40 14.9
27 Ti-0.1Ru 35 25 14.9
28 Ti-3Al-2.5V-0.1R 90 70 13.1
29 Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru 120 110 16.3

Examples: Titanium Gr 5 is Ti-6AI-4V
Titanium Gr 2 is known as commercially pure (CP Gr2)

Steel Grades | Aluminum Grades | Titanium Grades




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